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Bulgarian Technology Transfer Network (BgTTN)

6. GIS-TC ‘‘Electromagnetic sensors"
Str. Acad. G. Bonchev, block 4, office 109
phone: + 359 899 977 880

The center was established in 2020. The goal is to conduct scientific-applied research in the field of electromagnetic field - matter interaction and development of unique sensors and related systems for receiving information about specific properties and parameters of the studied objects. The developed sensors are used for a wide range of practical purposes. In this way we make a direct connection between science and industry.

We mainly work on research and utilization of the Electromagnetic Echo Effect (EMEE). It allows investigation of solids, liquids and gases. The essence of the effect is that the interaction of any solid with an electromagnetic field induces an alternating electric potential difference with the same frequency as the frequency of the incident field. Experimentally, the electrical signal between the irradiated sample and the common electric ground of the system was measured. The effect was first observed at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and was later developed in joint research with Russian and American scientists. The measurement is contactless and fast. An important feature of the EMEE is its significant dependence on the specific properties of the irradiated sample. This fact reveals vast opportunities for rapid and contactless analysis of solids, liquids and gases.

In contrast to other similar effects, the EMEE is characteristic of all kinds of solids and this makes it very interesting from scientific as well as from practical point of view. The applications experimentally tested by us are:
► By this method one can obtain valuable information about the irradiated solid surfaces, namely about the presence of mechanical defects and imperfections, impurities and surface states, surface electrical characteristics such as a type of conductivity, etc. One can trace the shape of the produced surface structures, for example, by ion implantation;
► Contactless characterization of semiconductors;
► Remote retrieval of information on a solid object and its displacement.
► Тhe temperature dependence of a sample;
►Another field of applications is the gas, vapour and liquid sensors development on the basis of EMEE. The method provides information on fluids and processes taking place therein. For example, it is possible to monitor the octane factor of gasoline, impurities in liquids, the concentration of gases.
► Construct a level-meter indicating the level of a liquid without moving parts;
►Our experiments showed that one can monitor the deposition of materials from solution. For example, such a change was observed when CaCO3 was deposited on a metal surface from water;
► Up to now we have showed experimentally that it is possible to make express contactless chemical composition test of samples, for example counterfeit coins - the detector could be designed relatively economically and small in size, so as to be installed in any coin-operated machine. In addition to the protection of the national currency, the EMEE may find many other applications. For example, various types of absorbing filters for gases and liquids can be monitored to determine when they need to be replaced. Test of drinking water is technically feasible. Very often when making special details in industry, it is important to know if there are changes in the chemical composition of the material from which they are being made. At present such control on every separate detail is not usually done. The offered method can also be applied to such purposes;
►The above effect can be applied for registration of specific reactions and processes taking place in milk. We propose a technique for instantaneous detection of inhibitors (antibiotics) in milk. We suggest possible methods for quality control of milk and other foods;
►The possibility of monitoring the quality, of raw materials in particular for the manufacture of ceramic products and especially for bricks has been investigated. This monitoring solves technological, environmental and energy saving problems. The obtained results indicate the possibility of control of incoming raw materials and other industrial processes;
► Control of fog parameters. Including presence of impurities in them;
► Control of phase transitions in liquid crystals;
► Detection of viruses.

We offer the development of specific sensors that are needed but cannot be found on the world market.
Ognyan Ivanov

Director of GIS-TC ‘‘Electromagnetic sensors", Associate Professor O. Ivanov has a PhD in acoustoelectronics and has worked for more than 25 years on investigation of electromagnetic field-matter interaction and making of sensors on this basis.

He is the author of two books, 100 articles, and participant in 51 scientific conferences. Author in seven patents. His research interests are in the field of acoustoelectronic and optical and electron properties of solids, electromagnetic field – matter interactions and development of sensors on that basis. Member of Optical society of Amerika and different scientific, organization and editorial boards.

Dr. Ivanov has 6 awards from Bulgarian and international exhibitions and competitions. He is a participant or leader in 16 projects. He is a team leader of the Bulgarian team that works on development of new types of sensors under the European project COUNTERFOG – Security programme.

The team of the centre is dynamic and formed on an open approach. The necessary specialists for different tasks are attracted. The team combines experts with long-term experience and also young scientists and students who have the desire to participate in the development of new ideas.
We work with academic institutes and universities, SME, NGOs, municipalities and state organizations in order to transfer scientific developments for practical purposes.
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